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|Written by Roman Bystrianyk
Monday, 21 September 2009 22:17
Randi Allaire was an Information Management Specialist in the military for almost four years. Three and one-half years were spent with the Air National Guard as Information Management, the previous five and half was with the Army Guard as a Flight Operations Specialist.
As part of the military’s program to protect their troops from chemical and biological weapons, Randi was required to take the anthrax vaccine. On March 14, 1999 she was given her fourth anthrax vaccine. It was after that shot that she has suffered chronic fatigue, memory lapses, migraines, pain in the forearms, and other aches and pains. She received no help with her condition and only denials that the anthrax vaccine could cause any of these problems and that the cause of her problems was likely the “flu” or too much “stress”. She was eventually thrown out of the military because she refused to take the fifth anthrax vaccine shot in fear for her own personal health.
Aluminum is the most commonly licensed adjuvant that is added to a large number of vaccines. An adjuvant is a substance added to a vaccine to amplify the immune response. Aluminum compounds, which were identified over 90 years ago as adjuvants, are considered by the pharmaceutical industry and various government agencies as safe. The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has continued to approve the use of aluminum as an additive to vaccines for many years.
Despite these assurances that aluminum and all vaccine ingredients are safe, large numbers of military veterans who suffer from Gulf War Syndrome as well as parents of children who suffer from various neurologic conditions including Autism strongly believe that the vaccines were often at least in part a cause of their health problems.
A recent study in the Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry examined the possible neurotoxicity of aluminum. This new work builds on a previous study where the researchers had injected mice with a combination of aluminum and squalene, another vaccine adjuvant which is not licensed in North America.
In that study the investigators injected mice with adjuvants that mimicked the anthrax vaccine schedule set by the Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program. The investigators concluded in that study”our data suggest that the aluminum hydroxide adjuvant induces both behavioral and motor deficits and the loss of motor neurons and increased presence of astrocytes [astrocytes are cells that express inflammatory markers] in spinal cord and neuronal apoptosis [cell death] in the primary motor cortex.” When Professor Shaw was asked in an article by Pieta Wooley about this research Professor Shaw replied “No one in my lab wants to get vaccinated. This totally creeped us out. We weren’t out there to poke holes in vaccines. But all of a sudden, oh my God-we’ve got neuron death!”
In this new study (also termed experiment 2), mice received 6 aluminum hydroxide injections over a 2 week period. These mice along with control mice were subjected to a more rigorous behavioral testing regime than the original experiment.
The investigators found “the multiple aluminum hydroxide injections of experiment 2 showed profound effects on motor and other behaviours… Multiple aluminum injections produced significant behavioural outcomes including changes in locomotion behavior, and induced memory deficits on water maze tasks.”
I asked Professor Shaw “To your knowledge have there been any autopsies performed on service men and women that had GWS [Gulf War Syndrome] and have died to examine if they have a similar pattern of aluminum contamination that you discovered in your research?” He responded “that it has not been done to my knowledge.” I also asked “Has there been an examination of people with autism to examine the obvious likely link between aluminum and mercury contamination and that condition?” Again he responded “Not to my knowledge.”
It is important to note that while this and their previous study showed “significant behavioural and neuropathological outcomes with aluminum hydroxide” that these results were achieved under minimal conditions and that the effect of multiple other factors in real situation such as “stress, multiple vaccinations, and exposure to other toxins” would more than likely make the outcomes worse. “A recent study examining some of these factors in combination showed that stress, vaccination, and pyridostigmine bromide (Pyridostigmine bromide has been FDA approved for military use during combat situations as an agent to be given prior to exposure to the nerve agent Soman in order to increase survival), may synergistically act on multiple stress-activated kinases in the brain to induce neurologic impairment in GWS.”
I asked Professor Shaw, “In your opinion why do various governmental agencies continue to insist that vaccines are safe when you clearly state in your research paper that Ã¢â‚¬Ëœit also seems that there have been no rigorous animal studies of potential aluminum adjuvant toxicity. The absence of such studies is peculiar given the well known observation that aluminum in general can be neurotoxic under a number of conditions and adjuvants in particular have previously been implicated in neurological disease’?” Professor Shaw replied “A less charitable person than I would likely look at links between pharma and the regulatory agencies. I don’t know of any safe adjuvants. Aluminum is the one considered Ã¢â‚¬Ëœsafe’.”
The authors conclude, “Overall, the results reported here mirror previous work that has clearly demonstrated that aluminum, in both oral and injected forms, can be neurotoxic.” I followed up with Professor Shaw “knowing what you know about aluminum from your research would you personally use a vaccine that contains aluminum?” He responded “No, and I don’t.”
The following vaccines (vaccine name/trade name, manufacturer, and information from the product insert) contain aluminum adjuvant:
Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed/Biothrax, Emergent BioDefense Operations Lansing, Inc., “The final product is formulated to contain 1.2 mg/mL aluminum, added as aluminum hydroxide in 0.85% sodium chloride.”
Diphtheria & Tetanus Toxoids Adsorbed, Sanofi Pasteur Inc, “Each 0.5 mL dose is formulated to contain 6.7 Lf of diphtheria toxoid, 5 Lf of tetanus toxoid, and not more than 0.17 mg of aluminum.”
Diphtheria & Tetanus Toxoids & Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed/Tripedia, Sanofi Pasteur, Inc., “Each 0.5 mL dose also contains, by assay, not more than 0.170 mg of aluminum and not more than 100 ÃŽÂ¼g (0.02%) of residual formaldehyde.”
Diphtheria & Tetanus Toxoids & Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed/Infanrix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, “Each 0.5-mL dose contains 4.5 mg of NaCl and aluminum adjuvant (not more than 0.625 mg aluminum by assay). Each dose also contains Ã¢â€°Â¤100 mcg of residual formaldehyde and Ã¢â€°Â¤100 mcg of polysorbate 80 (Tween 80).”
Diphtheria & Tetanus Toxoids & Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed/DAPTACEL, Sanofi Pasteur, Ltd., “Other ingredients per 0.5 mL dose include 1.5 mg aluminum phosphate (0.33 mg of aluminum) as the adjuvant, Ã¢â€°Â¤5 ÃŽÂ¼g residual formaldehyde, <50 ng residual glutaraldehyde and 3.3 mg (0.6% v/v) 2-phenoxyethanol (not as a preservative).”
Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed, Hepatitis B (Recombinant) and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Combined/Pediarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, “Each 0.5-mL dose also contains 4.5 mg of NaCl and aluminum adjuvant (not more than 0.85 mg aluminum by assay). Each dose also contains Ã¢â€°Â¤100 mcg of residual formaldehyde and Ã¢â€°Â¤100 mcg of polysorbate 80 (Tween 80).”
Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine/Kinrix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, “Each 0.5-mL dose contains 4.5 mg of NaCl and aluminum adjuvant (not more than 210 0.6 mg aluminum by assay). Each dose also contains Ã¢â€°Â¤100 mcg of residual formaldehyde and 211 Ã¢â€°Â¤100 mcg of polysorbate 80 (Tween 80).”
Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed, Inactivated Poliovirus and Haemophilus b Conjugate (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate) Vaccine/Pentacel, Sanofi Pasteur, Ltd, “Other ingredients per 0.5 mL dose include 1.5 mg aluminum phosphate (0.33 mg aluminum) as the adjuvant, polysorbate 80 (approximately 10 ppm by calculation), Ã¢â€°Â¤5 ÃŽÂ¼g residual formaldehyde, <50 ng residual glutaraldehyde, Ã¢â€°Â¤50 ng residual bovine serum albumin, 3.3 mg (0.6% v/v) 2-phenoxyethanol (not as a preservative) and <4 pg of neomycin and <4 pg polymyxin B sulfate. “
Haemophilus b Conjugate (Meningococcal Protein Conjugate) and Hepatitis B (Recombinant) Vaccine/Comvax, Merck & Co, Inc, “The individual PRP-OMPC and HBsAg adjuvanted bulks are combined to produce COMVAX. Each 0.5 mL dose of COMVAX is formulated to contain 7.5 mcg PRP conjugated to approximately 125 mcg OMPC, 5 mcg HBsAg, approximately 225 mcg aluminum as amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, and 35 mcg sodium borate (decahydrate) as a pH stabilizer, in 0.9% sodium chloride. The vaccine contains not more than 0.0004% (w/v) residual formaldehyde.”
Hepatitis A Vaccine, Inactivated/Havrix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, “Each 1-mL adult dose of vaccine consists of 1440 EL.U. of viral antigen, adsorbed on 0.5 mg of aluminum as aluminum hydroxide. Each 0.5-mL pediatric dose of vaccine consists of 720 EL.U. of viral antigen, adsorbed onto 0.25 mg of aluminum as aluminum hydroxide.”
Hepatitis A Vaccine, Inactivated/VAQTA, Merck & Co, Inc, “Pediatric/Adolescent Formulation (12 Months Through 18 Years of Age): each 0.5 mL dose contains approximately 25U of hepatitis A virus antigen adsorbed onto approximately 0.225 mg of aluminum provided as amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, and 35 mcg of sodium borate as a pH stabilizer, in 0.9% sodium chloride. Adult Formulation (19 Years of Age and Older): each 1 mL dose contains approximately 50U of hepatitis A virus antigen adsorbed onto approximately 0.45 mg of aluminum provided as amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, and 70 mcg of sodium borate as a pH stabilizer, in 0.9% sodium chloride.”
Hepatitis A Inactivated & Hepatitis B (Recombinant) Vaccine/Twinrix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, “A 1.0-mL dose of vaccine contains 720 ELISA Units of inactivated hepatitis A virus and 20 mcg of recombinant HBsAg protein. One dose of vaccine also contains 0.45 mg of aluminum in the form of aluminum phosphate and aluminum hydroxide as adjuvants, amino acids, 5.0 mg 2-phenoxyethanol as a preservative, sodium chloride, phosphate buffer, polysorbate 20, Water for Injection, traces of formalin (not more than 0.1 mg), a trace amount of thimerosal (<1 mcg mercury) from the manufacturing process, and residual MRC-5 cellular proteins (not more than 2.5 mcg).”
Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant)/Engerix-B, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, “Pediatric/Adolescent: Each 0.5-mL dose contains 10 mcg of hepatitis B surface antigen adsorbed on 0.25 mg aluminum as aluminum hydroxide. The pediatric formulation contains sodium chloride (9 mg/mL) and phosphate buffers (disodium phosphate dihydrate, 0.98 mg/mL; sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate, 0.71 mg/mL). Adult: Each 1-mL adult dose contains 20 mcg of hepatitis B surface antigen adsorbed on 0.5 mg aluminum as aluminum hydroxide. The adult formulation contains sodium chloride (9 mg/mL) and phosphate buffers (disodium phosphate dihydrate, 0.98 mg/mL; sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate, 0.71 mg/mL).”
Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant)/Recombivax HB, Merck & Co, Inc, “All formulations contain approximately 0.5 mg of aluminum (provided as amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, previously referred to as aluminum hydroxide) per mL of vaccine. In each formulation, hepatitis B surface antigen is adsorbed onto approximately 0.5 mg of aluminum (provided as amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate) per mL of vaccine.”
Human Papillomavirus Quadrivalent (Types 6, 11, 16, 18) Vaccine, Recombinant/Gardasil, Merck & Co, Inc, “Each 0.5-mL dose of the vaccine contains approximately 225 mcg of aluminum (as Amorphous Aluminum Hydroxyphosphate Sulfate adjuvant), 9.56 mg of sodium chloride, 0.78 mg of L-histidine, 50 mcg of polysorbate 80, 35 mcg of sodium borate, < 7 mcg yeast protein/dose, and water for injection. The product does not contain a preservative or antibiotics.”
Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine, Inactivated, Adsorbed (Military & Commercial)/Ixiaro, Merck & Co, Inc, “Each dose of vaccine contains approximately 6 mcg of purified, inactivated JEV proteins and 250 mcg of aluminum hydroxide.“
Pneumococcal 7-valent Conjugate Vaccine (Diphtheria CRM197 Protein)/Prevnar, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Inc, “Each 0.5 mL dose is formulated to contain: 2 ÃŽÂ¼g of each saccharide for serotypes 4, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F, and 4 ÃŽÂ¼g of serotype 6B per dose (16 ÃŽÂ¼g total saccharide); approximately 20 ÃŽÂ¼g of CRM197 carrier protein; and 0.125 mg of aluminum per 0.5 mL dose as aluminum phosphate adjuvant.“
Tetanus & Diphtheria Toxoids, Adsorbed for Adult Use, Massachusetts Public Health Biologic Lab, “Each 0.5 ml dose contains by calculation not more than 0.45 mg aluminum and less than 100 ÃŽÂ¼g (0.02%) of residual formaldehyde. The aluminum phosphate functions as an adjuvant to increase the immunogenicity of the toxoids in primary immunization.”
Tetanus & Diphtheria Toxoids Adsorbed for Adult Use/DECAVAC, Sanofi Pasteur, Inc, “Each 0.5 mL dose also contains a trace amount of thimerosal [mercury derivative, (Ã¢â€°Â¤0.3 ÃŽÂ¼g mercury/dose) not as a preservative] from the manufacturing process, aluminum adjuvant (not more than 0.28 mg aluminum by assay), and not more than 100 ÃŽÂ¼g (0.02%) of residual formaldehyde.”
Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed, Sanofi Pasteur, Inc, “Each 0.5 mL dose is formulated to contain 5 Lf (flocculation units) of tetanus toxoid and not more than 0.25 mg of aluminum. The residual formaldehyde content, by assay, is less than 0.02%.”
Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine, Adsorbed/Adacel, Sanofi Pasteur, Ltd, “Other ingredients per dose include 1.5 mg aluminum phosphate (0.33 mg aluminum) as the 15 adjuvant, Ã¢â€°Â¤5 ÃŽÂ¼g residual formaldehyde, <50 ng residual glutaraldehyde and 3.3 mg (0.6% v/v) 16 2-phenoxyethanol (not as a preservative).”
Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine, Adsorbed/ Boostrix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, “Each 0.5-mL dose also contains 4.5 mg of NaCl, aluminum adjuvant (not more than 0.39 mg aluminum by assay), Ã¢â€°Â¤100 mcg of residual formaldehyde, and Ã¢â€°Â¤100 mcg of polysorbate 80 (Tween 80).”
Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration, Christopher A. Shaw, et al, Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 2009 Aug 20. [Epub ahead of print]
Aluminum adjuvant linked to Gulf War illness induces motor neuron death in mice, M.S. Petrik, et al, Neuromolecular Medicine, 2007, Vol. 1, No. 9, pp. 83-100
Conversation with Professor Christopher Shaw. Christopher Shaw is Professor of Neurology and Neurogenetics at the Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London. He is also an Honorary Consultant Neurologist at King’s College Hospital and Neurogeneticist at Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospitals.
An Interview with Staff Sergeant Randi Allaire in the Air Force National Guard available at http://www.healthsentinel.com/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2447:an-interview-with-staff-sergeant-randi-allaire-in-the-air-force-national-guard&catid=39:reports&Itemid=52
Vaccines Licensed for Immunization and Distribution in the US with Supporting Documents, http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm093830.htm